1. Biblical Jacob is the father. Esau is his twin brother who exchanges his birthright for a lentil stew. Esau leaves the island and tries all his life to return. Biblical Benjamin is the son of Jacob. And biblical Aaron is the grandson of Jacob. Biblical Aaron is not Benjamin's son as Aaaron is not Jack's son. But biblical Aaron is Jacob's grandson as Aaron is Christian's grandson. Esau is not Windmore. Windmore is working for Esau, now. There are two groups along island's history. Jacob is the patriarch(?) leader of the Group J (Hostiles, Others), but all this time there is another Group E, always trying to recapture the island.
Esau is Magnus Hanso using Black Rock in his first attempt to discover the island. The ship in its final voyage was reportedly heading for Africa, where it was to exchange gold from Indonesia and Papua New Guinea for more slaves, and then presumably head back to England. However, since the Island is assumed to be to the East of Papua New Guinea, the ship would have been traveling in the wrong direction for Africa: east instead of west. Indeed, it was noted by traders at a Papua New Guinea port that the ship did set sail in the wrong direction. Black Rock. Furthermore, the discrepancy regarding the date of the final voyage confirms that the ship travelled in time.
Windmore is working for Esau, now. Charles Widmore bought the Black rock ledger in 1996. The contents of the ledger are uknown to anyone outside the Hanso family and Charles Widmore. According to the auctioneer the ship set sail from Portsmouth in 1845. The auctioneer says so, because the last entry in the ledger has been written by the first mate, in 1845. In The Lost Experience, sources suggest that the Black Rock initially set sail from slip 23, Portsmouth, England, and set out on its final voyage in 1881. Either the ship landed on the island in 1881 for the real world, but the same moment in 1845 or earlier on the island, or the ship landed in 1881 and then the crew travelled during a time sfift to the past.
2. Who are the others? The Others are the island's people, the sons of Jacob travelling along the time. When they arrived in the time of Ancient Egypt they built the statue and the (Egyptian) temple. Recruitment goes on each time shift. Actually, the others are people like the Oceanic 6 with an integral memory of the future which they have already lived on the island. Why some of the tailies and some children remain with the Others in early seasons? Because they can remember or the others can help them remember their future on the island, using for example some photos from the future. They returned to the island in the past of their former lives on it. Thats why the oceanic 6 and all the others were not in the Other's list. But I am sure they should be included in the next 315 list. The Others have travelled along both past (as much as ancient Egypt's time) and the future regarding real world's time, but, this a linear, a complete linear timeline for the Others. In this timeline, in island's timeline it is possible "Egyptian period" to follow "Jughead period". Along this timeline, communication with the real world brings human resources, money (prediction of the future is the easiest way to become rich), but also, health problems like rupture of cerebral aneurysms. This is inevitable as "communication" means conscious adaptation along different timelines. All the others have not the same adaption ability. They are special among them, like Richard who obviously doesn't age.
3. The timeline of the island is absolutely linear for its inhabitants, although not compatible with the real world's timeline. As most of the Others have spent at least some years of their life in the real world, they become infertile because there is no possibility to rise children who don't exist in the already experienced future of the real world. Thats why Ben focus on this problem. If a baby is born on the island and never leaves it, it would not age. Exactly, like Richard, who seems that he has spent much of his life on the island. Its the same reason for the dead people are visible. They may be dead in the real world's timeline but they are alive in island's timeline.
4. The island is the ideal laboratory for scientific research. And especially for those looking for the exact date of the end of the world (as they can experience it through time travel). Dharma (Esau) and Others (Jacob) are the same people fighting for the control of the island. Richard and Horace look to know well each other. Ben arrives as Dharma recruitment (throug his father) but ends as the leader of the Others. Widmore is one of the Others, but he seems to at least cooperate with Dharma projects. Biblical Jacob deceived his father dressed in Esau's garments and with goatskins on his arms and neck to simulate Esau's hairy skin in order to win Isaac's blessing. Doesn't it look familiar with Ben's practice?