When Charlotte stated in her delerium that "I know Carthage better than Hannibal", meaning she may have studied the pre-biblical culture of the Phoenicians in her job as an archaologist.
It is believed among scholars that at some point the Phoenecians practiced the sacrifice of children to their deities. If that is the reference the writers intended to bring up, it brings more depth of meaning to the Others' obsession with children, as well as their inability to survive childbirth.
Perhaps the island is demanding sacrifice of children, either physically or emotionally. Thoughts?